Backed by Science

The Science

Since 2008, our beetroot juice has been used by over 300 universities worldwide, which has led to over 200 independent scientific studies being published. Dietary nitrate supplementation is widely recognized as one of the main innovations in sports nutrition over the last decade, due to it’s ability to enhance performance in a number of sports and exercise activities, including cycling, running and team-based sports.

How does it work?

Ingested dietary nitrate is converted to nitrite by bacteria on the tongue. Nitrate is absorbed into the blood and is converted to nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is known to play a number of important roles in the regulation of blood flow and metabolism.

Dosing Guidelines

Consume 1-2 shots one to three hours before training and for up to 6 days prior to competition.

 

Sport and Medical Research

Beet It Sport shots have been independently used for research in over 200 nutritional, medical and sports science institutes and universities, in more than 30 countries around the world.

Leading research into dietary nitrate supplementation for sports performance is undertaken here in the UK at The University of Exeter under Professor Andy Jones, who is a beetroot expert and pioneered the research into dietary nitrate supplementation at the University of Exeter.

We had the pleasure of interviewing one of the greatest physiologists in the UK.

Q&A

Read a transcript of the interview below:

Andy, when start getting passionate about Exercise and Sport Science?

I think my interest probably began as an athlete myself – as a teenager I was reasonably successful as a distance runner and I wanted to learn more about the limits of performance and so I was naturally drawn to Sports Science. I did my first degree in Sports Science and eventually my PHD in Exercise Physiology and as my running career started to fall by the way side then I was able to put that same energy into studying the limitations to performance and so it was a natural sort of transition.

What other interests in sport do you have?

I guess I’m a fan of all sports really; I love it when the Olympics comes around. I’m a fan of rugby, particularly, as a Welshman I follow the 6 Nations very closely. But I think my first love will always be endurance sports but distance running in particular. With my background as a runner myself, I think that’s the one that I continue to live vicariously through.

Many people know you as "@AndyBeetroot" online. Why was beetroot the chosen vegetable?

Nitrate is contained in a variety of different vegetables; green leafy vegetables in particular, and a couple of fruits as well. We chose beetroot simply because it’s quite easy to administer because you can juice beetroot – and it’s very easy to consume in a liquid form – at certain volume, which contains a certain amount of nitrate – and when you’re doing controlled laboratory experiments, that’s quite a nice capability to have. Whereas with something like lettuce or spinach, you wouldn’t ever quite know how much you were giving and to consume 100g of spinach prior to exercise is not quite so straight forward as consuming say, 70ml of beetroot juice.

Why do you use concentrated beetroot shots for your research?

Beetroot is available in many forms and of course if you were to consume say three or four beetroots you’d consume a certain amount of nitrate, which would be effective. But the problem is, you don’t really know exactly how much you’re going to get. So it’s much easier to consume a liquid than a solid – especially if you’re an athlete and you’re due to train or to compete. And of course the smaller the volume of fluid that you consume, the more convenient that is as well so using the concentrated shots we find is more palatable and easier, just logistically both for us and for our subjects than consuming the 500ml of juice that we did in our original experiments.

What are the main physiological outcomes of consuming natural nitrate for sports performance?

Following the consumption of inorganic nitrate, there are a whole variety of physiological effects. One of the most striking is a reduction in the oxygen cost of exercise, which suggests that muscle has become more economical, or more efficient. Exactly why that occurs we’re not absolutely sure – it seems that the contractile apparatus in the muscle may become more efficient in itself. It may be that the mitochondria that produce energy aerobically become more efficient and simultaneously we think there’s a dilation of blood vessels to allow more blood and more oxygen to flow to the areas within the muscles that need it the most. So all that’s, I think quite important. And of course, if you can improve muscle economy, then you ought to be able to improve performance.

More recently we find that actual muscle power output might be positively impacted as well which means that sprint sports and intermittent sports may benefit from nitrate consumption pre-exercise also.

Do the physiological mechanisms differ with different durations or different types of sport? For example, with a 10km cycle versus high-intensity intermittent running such as rugby or hockey?

So the mechanisms that may explain differences in physiological response and performance outcome in different types of sport probably vary according to the intensity and duration of exercise that we do. So for longer duration exercise, which predominantly relies on aerobic metabolism, then delivering plenty of oxygen to the muscles and using that oxygen very efficiently is what’s going to be important for performance. But if we’re talking about high power sports; short duration; sprint activities; intermittent sports such as rugby, soccer, hockey and so forth, then the effects on muscle contractility is what’s important as well and we think that there is some effect on calcium activity within cells which enables a stronger contraction.

Is there an optimal dose and duration of taking nitrate supplementation? And is there a maximal threshold for which you can consume?

We’re still investing the optimal duration of dosing and the optimal amount of nitrate that could be taken pre-exercise. Partly depends upon things such as body size and body mass and the type of activity that you may be performing. Generally speaking to take the nitrate for several days before competition, plus on the day of competition is what we’d recommend. And around 6 to 8 millimoles in one to two concentrated beetroot shots again is what we’d typically recommend. That would be taking two to three hours before the main competition because it takes about that long for the nitrate to be processed within the body. Any less than around 5 or 6 millimoles of nitrate possibly isn’t going to be very effective, unless you take it over a number of days consecutively, but any more than 8 to 12 doesn’t seem to have any extra benefit, so there is no advantage to taking more than the one or two shots per day or immediately prior to competition.

Is there any research that leads to the effects of natural nitrates for exercise recovery?

Most of our work has looked at the effects of nitrate pre-exercise, but there is some literature now looking at what happens post-exercise – in other words, recovery from exercise. And there’s some indications that it may be beneficial there as well. Now that could be because we get some dilation of blood vessels which enables oxygen to continue to flow and for waste products to be removed, but equally it seems that muscle damage which can occur following an unaccustomed bout of exercise is less pronounced when beetroot juice is consumed within that immediate recovery period.

It may not be the nitrate actually because of course beetroot juice contains a whole variety of other components as well including polyphenols and antioxidants and flavonols and such alike, but it could be the ‘cocktail’ within the beetroot juice that’s important, more than – or as much as – the nitrate per-se.

What athlete, or what sport type would you love to get in the lab and experiment?

Beetroot juice has been used in a variety of different sports, different levels of competition, mostly with positive results. I think the area that we’re moving into now is the effect on sprint performance and muscle power and so forth, and there are some indications, at least in recreational or sub-elite athletes that it can be effective in those circumstances. What we don’t know yet is whether elite sprinters stand to benefit and I think that may be the next area to look at – elite basketball players who very much rely on power, elite football players, and sprinters themselves.

Is it safe to say that any athlete regardless of their discipline, could get a benefit from using natural nitrate supplementation?

I think athletes respond in different ways to different supplements – nutritional supplements – and that includes beetroot juice. We know that recreational athletes do tend to benefit on average; the elite athletes, possibly somewhat less so, at least at standard doses. I know a variety of reasons why that may be the case. So the higher aerobic fitness tends to reduce the impact that nitrate may have on performance. Even a small effect could be beneficial and sometimes small amounts are difficult to measure because of the variability that we get from day to day anyway. But we also see that in some elite athletes, that they do respond – like with lots of nutritional supplements – we have ‘responders’ and ‘non-responders’ and even in elite athletes there’s a small minority of athletes that still do benefit substantially, so probably worth them at least exploring the potential benefits of nitrate to their performance.

Is there any evidence to say that it could be beneficial for ultra-endurance athletes to use during effort as a top up?

Most of the research to date has focused on relatively short durations of exercise, whether they be continuous or intermittent. And an unanswered question at the moment is the extent to which it might also benefit much longer duration performance; ultra-endurance activities and such like. We don’t really know what happens there. We know that nitrite levels in the blood tend to fall over time, which opens up the possibility or the interesting question about whether if you supplement nitrate during exercise, whether that may elevate or maintain the elevation of plasma nitrite levels and allow performance to be continued for longer, or for better performance to be enabled later in the competition. So that’s something we’re actually working on right now.

What has been the most interesting finding from your research during 2016?

I think one of the most interesting findings we’ve had in recent times is within a study that we did where we looked at simulated soccer performance. We did two 40 minute halves where we replicated the metabolic demands, but simultaneously we asked our subjects to do some quite demanding cognitive function tasks so they were asked to respond as quickly and as accurately to some prompts that they saw on a computer screen in front of them.

In the controlled condition as you’d expect, their performance got worse – they were able to think less clearly and they made decisions much more slowly in the second half compared to the first half. That was with the placebo. But when we gave them the nitrate and of course this was a double-blind experiment, to our surprise, their cognitive abilities were better maintained in the second half compared to the first half. So they continued to make similarly accurate, or inaccurate decisions, but they did it with less decline in the rate which they answered.

So there seemed to be benefits both on physical performance but also on cognitive performance in that study as well, and of course, when you’re talking about team sports, the ability to make fast and accurate decisions is important as well as the physical component.

What can we expect to find from your dietary nitrate research in 2017 and beyond?

So getting my crystal ball out and thinking about where the dietary nitrate story might lead next, I think the direction of travel is definitely in what happens within muscle to enable it to generate more power and for sprint performance to be enhanced – so trying to unveil a mechanistic basis for that is an important next step.

We’re also quite interested to know where nitrate is stored. We know that nitrate levels and nitrite levels go up in the blood, but are they stored in tissue – in muscle tissue, for example. And there are animal experiments that indicate that it is – that when you take nitrate, the reservoir of nitrate and nitrite within your muscle is elevated – but that’s not yet been shown in humans. So the gradient from muscle to blood and vice versa is going to be an important next step as well.

Can you see any medical applications from your research into dietary nitrate?

My research here at the University of Exeter focuses on what happens with nitrate and sports performance and the physiological responses to exercise of different types, but we know that if you can increase nitric oxide bioavailability then you may expect to have some clinical, or health benefits as well. One of the obvious ones is a reduction in resting blood pressure. That’s been very widely researched and we think that can have a positive effect on cardiovascular health across the population – so we should be eating and consuming more nitrate-containing vegetable products, I think.

But also lots of people are getting into now, the extent to which nitrate may enhance performance in different types of people within the population. Older folks for example – again if we can reduce the oxygen cost of walking, then that may increase quality of life and improve the amount of physical activity that they do, but also in disease conditions which influence oxygen availability at the muscle – things like heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, then there are potential applications there which other groups, and us to some extent, are investigating presently.

Placebo Shots

In conjunction with the University of Exeter, we developed the placebo shot, which is an identical version of the Nitrate 400 shot (in appearance and taste), except the nitrate has been removed.

Researchers worldwide use our placebo shots to conduct double-blind, placebo controlled trials, to eliminate the possibility of a ‘placebo effect’ and ultimately increase the robustness of their research.

We are happy to provide our Placebo Beet It Sport shots to teams and institutions worldwide for research. For more information please get in touch!

Placebo beetroot shot

Research Papers

Below are a list of papers that have been published on the subject of the benefits of natural nitrate supplementation.
The represents a study which used Beet It.

2019

Human skeletal muscle nitrate store: influence of dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise
The journal of Physiology
Wylie et al (2019) – University of Exeter, UK.

Effect of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Mood, Perceived Exertion and Performance During a 30s Wingate Test
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Jodra et al (2019) – Alfonso X El Sabio University – Spain

Dietary supplementation improves exercise tolerance by reducing muscle fatigue and perceptual responses
Frontiers in Physiology
Husmenn et al (2019) – University of Rostock, GER.

A double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of the effect of beetroot juice containing dietary nitrate on aorta and brachial blood pressure over 24hr
Frontiers in Physiology
Kukadia et al (2019) – University College London, UK

Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves flow mediated dilation of the superficial femoral artery in healthy older males
Nutrients
Walker et al (2019) – University of the Sunshine Coast, AUS

Chronic high-dose beetroot juice supplementation improves time trial performance of well-trained cyclists in normozia and hypoxia
Nitric Oxide
Rokkedal-Lausch et al (2019) – Aalborg University, DK

Beetroot juice supplementation for the prevention of cold symptoms associated with stress: A proof-of-concept study
Physiology & Behavior
Ritz et al (2019) – Southern Methodist University Dallas, US

2018

IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athleteBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
Maughen et al (2018) – St Andrews University, UK

What’s in your beet juice? Nitrate and nitrite content of beet juice products marketed to athletes
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Gallardo & Coggan(2018) – Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US

Dietary nitrate from beetroot juice for hypertention: a systematic review
Nutrients
Ocampo et al(2018) – Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldres, Bogata, CO

Variability in nitrate-reducing oral bacteria and nitric oxide metabolites in biological fluids following dietary nitrate administration
Nitric Oxide
Liddle et al(2018) – University of the West of Scotland, UK

Cardiac effects of 6 months’ dietary nitrate and spironolactone in patients with hypertention and with/at risk of type 2 diabetes , in the factorial design, double-blind, randomised-controlled, VASERA TRIAL
Open Access
Mills et al(2018) – Kings College London (BHF), UK

Impact of Acute Dietary Nitrate Supplementation during Exercise in Hypertensive WomenMedicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Calwell et al(2018) – Kansas State University, US

Potential benefits of dietary nitrate ingestion in healthy and clinical populations: a brief review
British Journal of Sports Medicine
McDonaugh et al (2018) – University of Exeter, UK

The effects of beetroot juice supplementation on exercise economy, rating perceived exertion and running mechanics in elite distance runners: a double-blinded randomised study
PLOS ONE
Balsalobre-Fernandez et al (2018) – Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain

Dietary nitrate-induced increases in human muscle power: high versus low responders
Physiological Reports
Coggan et al (2018) – Indiana University, US

Effects of beetroot juice supplementation on Performance and Fatigue in a 30-s All-Out Sprint Exercise: A Randomized, Double-Blind Cross-Over Study
Nutrients
Cuenca et al (2018) – TecnoCampus-Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Spain

Effects of a single dose of beetroot juice on cycling time trial performance at ventilatory thresholds intensity in male triathletes
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Garnacho-Castano et al (2018) – TecnoCampus-Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Spain

Effects of oral supplementation with nitrate-rich beetroot juice in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension – results from BEET-PAH an exploratory randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study
Journal of Cardiac Failure
Henrohn et al (2018) – Uppsala University, SWE

The effect of beetroot juice supplementation on repeat-sprint performance in hypoxiaJournal of Sports Science
Kent et al (2018) – The University of Western Australia, AUS

Dietary nitrate improved exercise capacity in COPD but not blood pressure or pulmonary function: a 2 week, double-blind randomised, placebo-controlled crossover trial
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Kerley et al (2018) – Connolly Hospital Dublin, IRE

Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation, from beetroot juice, on blood pressure in hypertensive pregnant women: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled feasibility trial
Nitric Oxide
Kerley et al (2018) – University of Manchester, UK

Nitrate-responsive oral microbiome modulates nitric oxide homeostasis and blood pressure in humansFree Radical Biology and Medicine
Vanhatalo et al (2018) – University of Exeter, UK

A single dose of beetroot juice improves endothelial function but not tissue oxygenation in pregnant women: a randomised clinical trial
British Journal of Nutrition
Volino-Souza et al (2018) – Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Beet the Best? Dietary Inorganic Nitrate to Augment Exercise Training in Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease with Intermittent Claudication
Circulation Research
Woessner et al (2018) – Victoria University, AUS

Ergogenic effects of beetroot juice supplementation during severe-intensity exercise in obese adolescentsAmerican Journal of Physiology, Regulatory Integrative Comparative Physiology
Rasic et al (2018) – Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, ITA

Dietary nitrate lowers ambulatory blood pressure in treated, uncontrolled hypertension: a 7-d, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial
British Journal of Nutrition
Kerley et al (2018) – Hospital Blachardstown Dublin, IRE

Mechanisms underlying blood pressure reduction by dietary inorganic nitrate
Acta Physiologica
Carlstrom et al (2018) – Karolinska Institute, SWE

Nitrate, the oral microbiome, and cardiovascular health: a systematic literature review of human and animal studiesAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Blekkenhorst et al (2018) – University of Western Australia, AUS

Cerebral blood flow measurements in adults: a review on the effects of dietary factors and exerciseNutrients
Joris et al (2018) – Maastricht University Medical Centre, NL

Salivary nitrite production is elevated in individuals with a hgih abundance of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria
Free Radical Biology and Medicine
Burleigh et al (2018) – University of the West of Scotland, UK

Influence of dietary nitrate supplementtaion on lung function and exercise gas exchange in COPD patientsNitric Oxide
Mehrdad et al (2018) – Florida Hospital, US

Acute Effects of Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice on Blood Pressure, Hemostasis and Vascular Inflammation Markers in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study
Nutrients
Raubenheimer et al (2018) – Queensland University of Technology, AUS

Beetroot supplementation improved the physiological responses to incline walkingEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Waldron et al (2018) – St Mary’s University, UK

Acute ingestion of dietary nitrate increases muscle blood flow via local vasodilation during handgrip exercise in young adultsPhysiological Reports
Richards et al (2018) – Colerado State University, US

Beetroot increased muscle performance and oxygenation during sustained isometric exercise, but does not alter muscle oxidative efficiency and microvascular reactivity at restJournal of the American College of Nutrition
Papadopoulos et al (2018) – Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GK

Effect of organic and inorganic nitrates on cerebrovascular pulsatile power transmission in patients with heart failure and preserved efection fractionPhysiolgical Measurement
Londono-Hoyos et al (2018) – Universiteit Gent, BE

Repeated-sprint performance and plasma responses following beetroot juice supplementation do not differ between recreational, competitive and elite sprint athletesEuropean Journal of Sport Science
Jonvik et al (2018) – Maastricht University Medical Centre, NL

Acute beetroot juice administration improves peak isometric force production in adolescent malesApplied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism
Bender et al (2018) – Lipscomb University, US

Nitrate-rich dietary supplementation during pregnancy: the pros and consPregnancy Hypertension
Bahadoran et al (2018) – Sahahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Influence of dietary nitrate food forms on nitrate metabolism and blood pressure in healthy normotensive adultsNitric Oxide
McDonaugh et al (2018) – University of Exeter, UK

Beetroot juice ingestion during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise attenuates progressive rise in O2 uptake
Journal of Applied Physiology
Tan et al (2018) – University of Exeter, UK

Effects of beetroot juice supplementation on a 30-s high-intensity inertial cycle ergometer test Nutrients
Dominguez et al (2018) – Alfonso X el Sabio University, Spain

Changes in body posture alter plasma nitrite but not nitrate concentration in humans Nitric Oxide
Liddle et al (2018) – University of the West of Scotland, UK

Acute ingestion of beetroot juice increases exhaled nitric oxide in healthy individuals PLOS ONE
Kroll et al (2018) – Southern Methodist University Dallas, US

The nitrate-independent blood pressure-lowering effect of beetroot juice: a systematic review and meta-analysis Advances in Nutrition
Bahadoran et al (2018) – Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses to submaximal cycling in the heat European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kent et al (2018) – University of Western Australia, AUS

The effect of beetroot juice supplementation on dynamic apnea and intermittent sprint performance in elite female water polo players International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Jonvik et al (2018) – Maastricht University Medical Centre, NL

Effect of dietary nitrate levels on nitrate fluxes in rat skeletal muscle and liver Nitric Oxide
Gilliard et al (2018) – Penn State University, US

Dietary nitrate supplementation opposes the elevated diaphram blood flow in chronic heart failure during submaximal exercise Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Smith et al (2018) – Kansas State University, US

Nitrate Supplement Benefits Contractile Forces in Fatigued but Not Unfatigued Muscle
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Tillin et al (2018) – University of Roehampton, UK

Does dietary nitrate say NO to cardiovascular ageing? Current evidence and implications for research.
Procedings of the Nutrition Society
Siervo et al (2018) – Newcastle University, UK

Time-trial Performance in World-Class Speed Skaters After Chronic Nitrate Ingestion
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Richard et al (2018) – Universite Laval, Quebec, CAN

Effects of Single-Dose Dietary Nitrate on Oxygen Consumption During and After Maximal and Submaximal Exercise in Healthy Humans: A Pilot Study
International Journal of Exercise Science
Kocoloski and Creclius (2018) – University of Dalton, US

Effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on conduit artery blood flow, muscle oxygenation, and metabolic rate during handgrip exercise
Jorunal of Applied Physiology
Craig et al (2018) – Kansas State University, US

Acute Dietary Nitrate Supplementation Does Not Attenuate Oxidative Stress or the Hemodynamic Response During Submaximal Exercise in Hypobaric Hypoxia
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism
Carriker et al (2018) – High Point University, US

Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on local sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during exercise in a hot environment
European Journal of Applied Physiology
Amano et al (2018) – Kobe University, Japan

Effects of beetroot juice supplementation on intermittent high-intensity exercise efforts
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Dominguez et al (2018) – Alfonso X el Sabio University, Spain

Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces circulating platelet-derived extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease patients on clopidogrel therapy: a randomised, couble-blind, placebo-controlled study
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism
Clifford et al (2018) – Cardiff University Medical School, UK

Increasing vegetable intake to obtain the health promoting and ergogenic effects of dietary nitrate
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Van der Avoort CMT et al (2018) – Maastricht University Medical Centre, NL

Long-term dietary nitrite and nitrate deficiency causes metabolic syndrome, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular death in mice
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi
Kina-Tanada et al (2018) – University of the Ryukyus, JP

Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces low frequency blood pressure fluctuations in rats following distal middle cerebral artery occlusion
Jorunal of Applied Physiology
Allan et al (2018) – University of Otago, NZ

A pilot study investigating reactive oxygen species production in capillary blood after a marathon and the influence of an antioxidant-rich beetroot juice
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism
Clifford et al (2018) – Newcastle University, UK

Eight weeks of nitrate supplemention improves blood flow and reduces the exaggerated presser response during forearm exercise in peripheral arterial disease
American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Kruse et al (2018) – University of Iowa, US

Sodium nitrate supplementation alters mitochondrial H2O2 emission but does not improve mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in the heart of healthy rats
American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Monaco et al (2018) – McMaster University, CAN

2017

The Effect of Nitrate Supplementation on Cycling Performance in the Heat in Well-Trained Cyclists
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
McQuillan et al (2017) – University of WaIkato, NZ

Performance and health benefits of dietary nitrate supplementation in older adults: a systematic review
Nutrients
Stanaway et al (2017) – Massey University, NZ

Muscle oxygenation profiles between active and inactive muscle with nitrate supplementation under hypoxic exercise
Physiological Reports
Horiuchi et al (2017) – Mt. Fuji Research Institute, JP

Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on the response to extremity cooling and endothelial function in individuals with cold sensitivity. A double blind, placebo controlled, crossover, randomised control trial
Nitric Oxide
Englin et al (2017) – University of Portsmouth, UK

Effects of supervised exercise and dietary nitrate in older adults with controlled hypertension and or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
Nitric Oxide
Shaltout et al (2017) – Wake Forest University, US

Physiological and performance effects of nitrate supplementation during roller-skiing in normoxia and normobaric hypoxia
Nitric Oxide
Nyback et al (2017) – Mid Sweden University, SWE

Dietary nitrate supplementation opposes the elevated diaphram blood flow in chronic heart failure during submaximal exercise
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Smith et al (2017) – Kansas State University, US

The effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on the spatial heterogeneity of quadriceps deoxygenation during heavy-intensity cycling
Physiological Reports
Breese et al (2017) – Plymouth University, UK

Dietary beetroot juice – effects on physical performance in COPD patients: a randomized controlled crossover trial
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorders
Friis et al (2017) – Aarhus University, DEN

Dietary nitrate restores compensatory vasodilation and exercise capacity in response to a compromise in oxygen delivery in the non-compensator phenotype
Journal of Applied Physiology
Bentley et al (2017) – Queens University, CAN

Beetroot Juice Increases Human Muscle Force Without Changing Ca2+-handling Proteins
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Whitfield et al (2017) – University of Guelph, CAN

Acute beetroot juice supplementation on sympathetic nerve activity: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study
American Journal of Physiology
Notay et al (2017) – University of Guelph, CAN

Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances short but not longer duration running time-trial performance
European Journal of Applied Physiology
Shannon et al (2017) – Leeds Beckett University, UK

Beet Root Juice: An Ergogenic Aid for Exercise and the Aging Brain
Journals of Gerontology
Petrie et al (2017) – Wake Forest University, US

Beetroot juice supplementation improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players
Nutrients
Nyakayiru et al (2017) – Maastricht University, NL

Dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise tolerance in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Hirai et al (2017) – Queens University, Canada

Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances short but not longer duration running time-trial performance
European Journal of Applied Physiology
Shannon et al (2017) – Leeds Beckett University, UK

Influence of iodide ingestion on nitrate metabolism and blood pressure following short-term dietary nitrate supplementation in healthy normotensive adults
Nitric Oxide
Bailey et al (2017) – University of Exeter, UK

Effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on swimming performance in trained swimmers
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Lowings et al (2017) – Leeds Beckett University, UK

Effects of beetroot juice supplementation on cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes. A systematic review
Nutrients
Dominguez et al (2017) – Alfonso X el Sabio University, Spain

Association of dietary nitrate with atherosclerotic vascular disease mortality: a prospective cohort study of older adult women
American Society for Nutrition
Blekkenhorst et al (2017) – University of Western Australia, AUS

Effects of nitrate supplementation in trained and untrained muscle is modest with initial high plasma nitrite levels
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports
Christensen et al (2017) – University of Copenhagen, DEN

The effects of multi-day vs. single pre-exercise nitrate supplement dosing on simulated cycling time trial performance and skeletal muscle oxygenation
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jo et al (2017) – California State Polytechnic University, US

Effects of a Short-Term High-Nitrate Diet on Exercise Performance
Nutrients
Porcelli et al (2017) – University of Louisville, US

Oral Nitrate Increases Microvascular Reactivity and the Number of Visible Perfused Micro vessels in Healthy Volunteers
Journal of Vascular Research
Kolb et al (2017) – Université Libre de Bruxelles, BG

Sodium nitrate ingestion increases skeletal muscle nitrate content in humans
Journal of Applied Physiology
Nyakayiru et al (2017) – Maastricht University, NL

Dietary nitrate and blood pressure: evolution of a new nutrient?
Cambridge Journals in Nutrition Research Reviews
Ashworth et al (2017) – Plymouth University, UK

The effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on the adaptations to sprint interval training in previously untrained males
Science and Medicine in Sport Society
Muggeridge et al (2017) – University of the West of Scotland, UK

Dietary nitrate load lowers blood pressure and renal restive index in patients with chronic kidney disease: A pilot study
Nitric Oxide
Kemmner et al (2017) – Technical University of Munich, Germany

Dietary interventions for fetal growth restriction therapeutic potential of dietary nitrate supplementation in pregnancy
The Journal of Physiology
Cottrell et al (2017) – University of Manchester, UK

2016

Beet Root Juice: An Ergogenic Aid for Exercise and the Aging Brain
Journals of Gerontology
Petrie et al (2016) – Wake Forest University, US

A stepwise reduction in plasma and salivary nitrite with increasing strengths of mouthwash following a dietary nitrate load
Nitric Oxide
Woessner et al (2016) – Victoria University, AUS

Influence of beetroot juice ingestion on intermittent exercise performance
European Journal of Applied Physiology
Wylie et al (2016) – University of Exeter, UK

One Week of Daily Dosing With Beetroot Juice Improves Submaximal Endurance and Blood Pressure in Older Patients With Heart Failure
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Eggebeen et al (2016) – Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, US

Dietary nitrate enhances arterial oxygen saturation after dynamic apnea
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports
Patrician & Schagatay (2016) – Mid Sweden University, SWE

Impact of flavanoid-rich black tea and beetroot juice on postprandial peripheral vascular resistance and glucose homeostasis in obese, insulin-resistant men: a randmized controlled trial
BioMed Central, Nutrition & Metabolism
Fuchs et al (2016) -Â Radbound University Medical Center, NL

Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances high-intensity running performance in moderate normobaric hypoxia, independant of aerobic fitness
Nitric Oxide
Shannon et al (2016) – Leeds Beckett University, UK

Increase in maximal cycling power with acute dietary nitrate supplementation
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Rimer et al (2016) – University of Utah, US

Nitrate-Rich Vegetables Increase Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Concentrations and Lower Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults
The Journal of Nutrition
Jonvik et al (2016) -Â Maastricht University, NL

Beetroot juice supplementation improves exercise performance in soccer players
Nyakayiru et al (2016) – Maastricht University, NL

Dietary Nitrate supplementation attenuates the reduction in exercise tolerance following blood donation
American Journal of Physiology
Jones et al (2016) – University of Exeter, UK

Dietary nitrate supplementation improves sprint and high-intensity intermittent running performance
Nitric Oxide
Jones et al (2016) – University of Exeter, UK

Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on physiological and muscle metabolic adaptations to sprint interval training
Journal of Applied Physiology
Thompson et al (2016) – University of Exeter, UK

Is it rocket science – why dietary nitrate is hard to ‘beet’! Part I: twists and turns in the realization of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Khatri et al (2016) – Kings College London (BHF), UK

Is it rocket science – why dietary nitrate is hard to ‘beet’! Part II: further mechanisms and theraputic potential of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway
Brisitsh Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Mills et al (2016) – Kings College London (BHF), UK

Dietary nitrate and skeletal muscle contractile function in heart failure
Circulation Heart Failure Reports
Coggan & Peterson (2016) – Washington University, US

The Effect of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation on Endurance Exercise Performance in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Sports Medicine
McMahon et al (2016) – University of Queensland, AUS

Habitual dietary nitrate intake in well-trained athletes
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Jonvik et al (2016) – HAN University of Applied Sciences, NL

Does the ergogenicity of dietary nitrate depend on specific effects on type II muscle?
Exercise and Sport Science Reviews
Jones et al (2016) – University of Exeter, UK

Comparison of Total Antioxidant Potential, and Total Phenolic, Nitrate, Sugar, and Organic Acid Contents in Beetroot Juice, Chips, Powder, and Cooked Beetroot
Food Science and Biotechnology
Vasconcellos et al (2016) – Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, BR

2015

Inorganic nitrate supplementation improves muscle oxygenation, O2 uptake kinetics, and exercise tolerance at high but not low pedal rates
Journal of Applied Physiology
Bailey et al (2015) – University of Exeter, UK

Dietary nitrate improves sprint performance and cognitive function during prolonged intermittent exercise
European Journal of Applied Physiology
Jones et al (2015) – University of Exeter, UK

Dietary nitrate modulates cerebral blood flow parameters and cognitive performance in humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation
Physiology & Behaviour
Wightman et al (2015) – Northumbria University, UK

Effects of handgrip exercise or inorganic nitrate supplementation on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and peripheral arterial function in overweight and obese middle age and older adults: a pilot RCT
Maturitas
Lara et al (2015) – Newcastle University, UK

Acute dietary nitrate intake improves muscle contractile function in patients with heart failure
Circulation Heart Failure
Coggan et al (2015) – Washington University School of Medicine, US

Effect of acute dietary nitrate intake on maximal knee-extensor speed and power in healthy men and women
Nitric Oxide
Coggan et al (2015) – Washington University School of Medicine, US

Effects of dietary nitrate, caffeine, and their combination on 20-km cycling time trial performance
Journal of strength and conditioning research
Glasister et al (2015) – St Mary’s University College, UK

Dietary nitrate reduces the O2 cost of desert marching but elevates the rise in core temperature
European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kuennen et al (2015) -High Point University, US

Dietary nitrate provides sustained blood pressure lowering in hypertensive patients: a randomized, phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Hypertension
Kapil et al (2015) – Queen Mary University of London (WHRI), UK

Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves arterial endothelial function at high altitude: a double-blinded randomized controlled cross over study
Nitric Oxide
Bakker et al (2015) – Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N

The effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on the oxygen cost of cycling, walking performance and resting blood pressure in individuals with chronic pulmonary disease: a double blind placebo controlled, randomised control trial
Nitric Oxide
Shepherd et al (2015) – University of Exeter, UK

Dietary nitrate supplementation in COPD: an acute, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial
Nitric Oxide
Kerley et al (2015) – University College Dublin, IRE

Effects of sodium phosphate and beetroot juice supplementation on repeated-sprint ability in females
European Journal of Applied Physiology Buck et al (2015) – University of Western Austraila, AUS

Dietary nitrate supplementation improves exercise performance and decreases blood pressure in COPD patients
Nitric Oxide Berry et al (2015) – Wake Forest University, US

Beetroot juice improves on-water 500m time-trial performance, and laboratory-based paddling economy in national and international-level kayak athletes
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism Peeling et al (2015) – University of Western Australia, AUS

Dietary nitrate improves vascular function in patients with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlledstudy
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ahluwalia et al (2015) -Queen Mary University of London (WHRI), UK

Effect of inorgnic nitrate on exercise capacity in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
Heart Failure
Zamani et al (2015) – University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, US

Dietary inorganic nitrate and acute increases in exercise performance in peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Woessner & Mary (2015) – Victoria University, AUS

Effect of acute dietary nitrate consumption on oxygen consumption during submaximal exercise in hypobaric hypoxia
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Carriker et al (2015) – Indiana State University, US

Acute dietary nitrate supplementation enhances compensatory vasodilation during hypoxic exercise in older adults
Journal of Applied Physiology
Casey et al (2015) – University of Iowa, US

Effects of chronic dietary nitrate supplementation on the hemodynamic response to dynamic exercise
Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Lee et al (2015) – Kyung Hee University, SKR

Acute dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise performance in COPD: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised controlled pilot study
PLOS ONE
Curtis et al (2015) – Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Trust Imperial College, UK

A double blind randomized placebo control crossover trial on the effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on exercise tolerance in stable moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Leong et al (2015) -Â Monash Medical Centre, AUS

Dietary nitrate enhances power output during the early phases of maximal intensity sprint cycling
University of Lincoln Corry et al (2015) – University of Lincoln, UK

Ageing modifies the effects of beetroot juice supplementation on 24-hour blood pressure variability: An individual participant meta-analysis
Nitric Oxide Siervo et al (2015) – Newcastle University, UK

Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation augments cutaneousvasodilation and reduces mean arterial pressure in healthy humans
Microvascular Research
Keen et al (2015) – Kansas State University, US

Aerobic fitness affects the exercise performance responses to nitrate supplementation
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Porcelli et al (2015) – University of Louisville, US

High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women
Public Health Nutrition
Ashworth et al (2015) – University of Exeter, UK

Short-term effects of a high nitrate diet on nitrate metabolism in healthy individuals
Nutrients
Bondonno et al (2015) – University of Western Austraila, AUS

Suppression of erythropoiesis by dietary nitrate
FASEB Journal
Ashmore et al (2015) – University of Cambridge, UK

2014

A single dose of beetroot juice enhances cycling performance in simulated altitude
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Muggeridge et al (2014) – University of the West of Scotland, UK

Acute dietary nitrate supplementation decreases blood pressure and increases dry static apnea performance in females
Journal of Exercise Physiology online
Collofello et al (2014) – University of St. Francis, US

The effect of variable doses of inorganic nitrate-rich beetroot juice on simulated 2000-m rowing performance in trained athletes
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Hoon et al (2014) – University of Sydney, AUS

Dietary nitrate reduces skeletal muscle oxygenation response to physical exercise: a quantitative muscle functional MRI study
Physiological Reports
Bentley et al (2014) – University of Aberdeen, UK

Effects of acute dietary nitrate supplementation on 30-second wingate performance in healthy collegiate males
British Journal of Sports Medicine
Rothwell & Alkhatib (2014) – Sheffield Hallam University, UK

Nitrate supplementation enhances the contractile properties of human skeletal muscle
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Haider & Folland (2014) – Loughborough University, UK

Dietary nitrate supplementation improves reaction time in type 2 diabetes: development and application of a novel nitrate-depleted beetroot juice placebo
Nitric Oxide
Gilchrist et al (2014) – University of Exeter, UK

Inorganic nitrate supplementation improves exercise capacity in subjects with HF with preserved EF: a pilot study
Journal of Cardiac Failure
Zamani et al (2014) – University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, US

Acute dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise in COPD
Thorax
Curtis et al (2014) – Imperial College London, UK

Dietary nitrate accelerates post-exercise muscle metabolic recovery and O2 delivery in hypoxia
Journal of Applied Physiology
Vanhatalo et al (2014) – University of Exeter, UK

Beetroot supplementation lowers daily systolic blood pressure in older, overweight subjects
Nutrition Research
Jajja et al (2014) – Newcastle University, UK

Dietary nitrate supplementation: effects on plasma nitrite and pulmonary O2 uptake dynamics during exercise in hypoxia and normoxia
Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Kell et al (2014) – University of Exeter, UK

Dose dependent effects of nitrate supplementation on cardiovascular control and microvascular oxygen dynamics in healthy rats
Nitric Oxide
Ferguson et al (2014) – Kansas State University, US

2013

Dietary nitrate supplementation improves team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise performance
European Journal of Applied Physiology
Wylie et al (2013) – University of Exeter, UK

Effects of nitrate on the power-duration relationship for severe-intensity exercis
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Kelly et al (2013) – University of Exeter, UK

Beetroot juice and exercise: pharmacodynamics and dose-response relationships
Journal of Applied Physiology
Wylie et al (2013) – University of Exeter, UK

Beetroot juice supplementation speeds O2 uptake kinetics and improves exercise tolerance during severe-intensity exercise
American Journal of Physiology
Breese et al (2013) – Liverpool Hope University, UK

Influence of nitrate supplementation on VO2 kinetics and endurance of elite cyclists
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Christensen et al (2013) – University of Copenhagen, DK

Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on human skeletal muscle metabolism and force production during maximum voluntary contractions
European Journal of Physiology
Fulford et al (2013) – University of Exeter, UK

Likely additive ergogenic effects of combined preexercise dietary nitrate and caffeine ingestion in trained cyclists
International Scholarly Research Notices: Nutrition
Handzlik & Gleeson (2013) – University of Nottingham Medical School, UK

Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on 5 km running time trial performance in trained female runners
British Journal of Sports Medicine
Lanceley et al (2013) – Sheffield Hallam University, UK

Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on physiological and cognitive responses to incremental cycle exercise
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Thompson et al (2013) – University of Canberra, AUS

Impact of dietary nitrate supplementation via beetroot juice on exercising muscle vascular control in rats
European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ferguson et al (2013) – Kansas State University, US

2012

Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves dry static apnea performance
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Engan et al (2012) – Mid Sweden University, SWE

Blood pressure-lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects
British Journal of Nutrition
Hobbs et al (2012) – University of Reading, UK

Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation on 50 mile time trial performance in well-trained cyclists
European Journal of Applied Physiology
Wilkerson et al (2012) – University of Exeter, UK

Nitrate supplementation’s improvement of 10-km time-trial performance in trained cyclists
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Cermak et al (2012) – McMaster University, CAN

The effects of a single dose of concentrated beetroot juice on performance in trained flatwater kayakers
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Muggeridge et al (2012) – University of the West of Scotland, UK

Blood pressure-lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot-enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects
British Journal of Nutrition
Hobbs et al (2012) – University of Reading, UK

Enhanced vasodilaor activity of nitrite in hypertension: critical role for erythrocytic xanthine oxidoreductase and translational
Hypertension
Ghosh et al (2012) – Queen Mary University of London (WHRI), UK

Dietary nitrate improves muscle but not cerebral oxygenation status during exercise in hypoxia
Journal of Applied Physiology
Masschelein et al (2012) – University of Leuven, B

Dietary nitrate supplementation improves rowing performance in well-trained rowers
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Bond et al (2012) – Waikato Institute of Technology, NZ

2011

Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of walking and running: a placebo-controlled study
Journal of Applied Physiology
Lansley et al (2011) – University of Exeter, UK

Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves cycling time trial performance
American College of Sports Medicine

A beetroot juice shot is a significant and convenient source of bioacessible antioxidants
Journal of Functional Foods
Wootton-Beard & Ryan (2011) – Oxford Brooks University, UK

Dietary nitrate reduces metabolic perturbation and improves exercise tolerance in hypoxia
Journal of Physiology
Vanhatalo et al (2011) – University of Exeter, UK

“Dietary nitrate – a slow train coming?”
European Journal of Applied Physiology (November 2011)
Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm – Prof Jon Lundberg et al

“A toast to health and performance! Beetroot juice lowers blood pressure and the O2 cost of exercise”
Journal of Applied Physiology 110: 585-586 (2011)
Department of Applied Physiology & Kinesiology, Centre for Exercise Science, University of Florida

Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances exercise performance in peripheral arterial disease
Journal of Applied Physiology
Kenjale et al (2011) – Duke University, US

Dietary inorganic nitrate improves mitochondrial efficiency in humans
Cell Metabolism
arsen et al (2011) – Karolinska Institutet, SWE

Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances exercise performance in peripheral arterial disease
European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kenjale et al (2011) – Duke University Medical Centre, US

2010

Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans
Journal of Applied Physiology
Bailey et al (2010) – University of Exeter, UK

Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate intensity and incremental exercise
American Journal of Physiology
Vanhatalo et al (2010) – University of Exeter, UK

Inorganic nitrate supplementation lowers blood pressure in humans – role for nitrite – derived NO
Hypertension
Kapil et al (2010) – Queen Mary University of London (WHRI), UK

2009

Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans – using Beet It
Journal of Applied Physiology
Bailey et al (2009) – University of Exeter, UK

2008

Acute blood pressure lowering, vasoprotective, and antiplatelet properties of dietary nitrate via bioconversion to nitrite
Hypertension
Webb et al (2008) – Queen Mary University of London (WHRI), UK

2007

Effects of dietary nitrate on oxygen cost during exercise
Acta Physiologica
Larsen et al (2007) – Karolinska Institutet, SWE

2006

Effects of dietary nitrate on blood pressure in healthy volunteers
The New England Journal of Medicine
Larsen et al (2006) – Karolinska Institutet, SWE

Against Animal Testing

James White Drinks Ltd does not conduct, fund or commission any research involving laboratory animals. Beet It shots are used in medical research as a natural source of dietary nitrate, and research ethics committees have approved for Beet It shots to be used for human trials without completing animal trials first. We encourage all third-party scientists who use Beet It shots in their research to avoid using animals in laboratory experiments.